Neatsfoot oils are premium specialty oils primarily used in the treatment of leather to replace the natural oil removed from hides during the tanning process. They are obtained through a series of refining steps including purification, winterization, neutralization and filtration, therefore Neatsfoot oils tend to have lower Pour and Cloud Points than those of Lard Oils described below. Neatsfoot oils can be used raw, sulfated or bisulfited. The sulfated or bisulfited version of Neatsfoot oils is known as fatliquors. Faliquors are miscible with water to form emulsion with micron-sized particles making it easier to penetrate the leather matrix to produce a greater degree of softness to leather and render them less susceptible to breakdown by tanning chemicals. Since Neatsfoot oil is non-drying, it will not cause embrittlement or hardening of the leather on aging. Neatsfoot oil can also be used as an additive or base stock for other industrial applications such as metalworking and textile.
Among Neatsfoot Oil products, commonly used by the leather chemical industry are regular NeatsTM 3035-1 or a lighter color version of it called B3035-1, NeatsTM Oil 1528, and NeatsTM Oil 20 or known as NeatsTM 2032 in Asia. Grade A is also a popular choice in North America and essentially has the same specification as that of 3035-1 except for lower FFA. NeatsTM Oils 1528 and 2032 are in demand specially approaching winter season since both products have a very low Pour Point and Cloud Point that would allow chemical operations in the plant to continue under cold-temperature conditions.
Lard Oils find primary uses as an additive or basestock in lubricant industry. Lard Oil having higher polarity than mineral oils can solubilize more additives as a basestock. As an additive, Lard Oil being a triglyceride ester is a good lubricity additive or boundary lubricant that is an integral part of a lubricant formulation with antiwear or/and Extreme Pressure (EP) agents targeted for a specific industrial application. Lard Oils can be sulfurized to become an EP additive with various sulfur contents commonly used in the industrial applications such as metalworking fluids and gear oils.
LCT and PBLO are popular choices for lubricant formulators as a lubricity additive presumably due to their lighter color and lower FFA characteristics coupled with reasonable Pour and Cloud Points that allow easy handling at ambient temperatures. If those properties are not a factor, other less expensive Lard Oils such as EWS, PWS, and No. 1 can be considered.
Typical lubricant applications are Lard Oils are as follows:
Lard Oils are widely used in pharmaceutical industry in the fermentation of antibiotics. They are an excellent fat source and nutrient due to their high caloric content. The additional benefit includes acting as a defoamer during the fermentation process.
Blown Oils are oxidized Lard Oils. As a result of oxidation, the viscosity and polarity of the starting Lard Oil increase and the Iodine Value (IV) decreases according to the extent of oxidation. Blown Oils generally have better thermal and oxidative stability than their precursors since they are pre-oxidized under elevated temperatures. Their lubrication properties also get better due to the enhanced metal affinity after oxidation. Like Lard Oils, Blown Oils can be used as a base stock or an additive mostly in industrial applications. The lowest viscosity of Blown Oil is BO 160 that has a viscosity range of 32-37 cSt at 100o F. Higher product number means high viscosity.
Shipping containers for Neatsfoot Oils, Lard Oils, and Blown Oils include as follows: