Advance Technologies

AT Products and ApplicationsllN14cP11Olfsh 8rKsSHdwtlBald8 k0H4mqWMCsII2

AT Product Summary
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AT Product Application Summary
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Nupro Product Application Summary

AT Custom Products

AT Custom Product Summary

As an ester manufacturer, AT specializes in polyol oleo-esters that can be used as a base stock or as an additive.  These esters can be structurally classified into several categories as follows:

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(A)  TMP Esters

TMP Ester3Trimethylol propane (TMP) esters are prepared via the esterification of TMP with oleic acid, where R, R’, and R” can be identical or mixed depending on the carboxylic acids used in the formation.

Since we are oleochemical producer, the vast majority of the TMP esters are commercially manufactured with tallow-based oleic acid, with few exceptions such as Adtec™161 where medium-chained carboxylic acids are used.  We have made many different TMP esters ranging from short-chain to long-chain and from low to high viscosity, but only stock those items summarized in the AT Product table.  Adtec™133, 300 and 430 have exception high Flash and Fire points, greater than 300oC vs. 230oC Max for typical mineral oils, therefore find use as a base stock of biodegradable, fire-resistant hydraulic oils for outdoor equipment.  Adtec™126 and 426 are good lubricity additives for steel or aluminum rolling oils.  Adtec™161 is very unique product with outstanding low Pour Point, lends itself as a base stock of refrigeration lubricants or compressor oils.   Unlike all other TMP esters, Adtec™439 is a self-emulsifiable ester that is an ideal boundary lubricant for water-dilutable metalworking products.

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(B) PE Esters  

PE EsterPentaerythritol (PE) esters are prepared very much like TMP esters, where R, R’, R”, and R’” can be identical or mixed.   Most of our commercial products, the four R groups are identical coming from tallow-based oleic acid.  Adtec™139 is a typical example.  It is used in the rolling oils as a lubricity additive.  Since the Pour point is high about -5oC, it has very limited use as a base stock.  Adtec™219 serves as an example when the R group is mixed.  This could serve another example of an ideal base stock candidate for compressor or refrigeration oils since it has very low Pour point around -50oC.  However, the only drawback will be the Flash and Fire points are around 232oC, not as high as similar products in the TMP family, such as Adtec™133 and 300. 

 

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(C) Glycerol Esters

Glycerol EsterGlycerol esters known as triglycerides are the most abundant natural products found in animals, vegetables and trees.  Synthetic versions of triglycerides tend to encourage more varieties.  Although partial esterification of glycerol is rare in nature, it is common among man-made esters.  Glycerol monooleate (GMO) represents the mono-esterification of glycerol available in our product line as Adtec™137C that is widely used as a Friciton Modifier in both industrial and automotive applications. Diestification of glycerol serves another example where two hydroxyl groups in glycerol esterified with tallow-based oleic acid to afford glycerol dioleate (GDO) or known as Adtec ™ 151T that is also a good Friction Modifier and can be used as a plasticizer for thermoplastics. A more sophisticated AT ester coded as Adtec™292 that is totally absent from the nature is prepared with medium-chained fatty acids.   In theory or probably in practice, it can be a substitute of regular cooking oil presumably to take advantage the characteristics that it does not have any Iodine Number or double bonds in the molecule and should not degrade under elevated temperatures.

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(D) Neopentyl Glycol Esters

Neopentyl Glycol EsterNeopentyl glycol esters are di-esters of neopentyl glycol (NPG) exemplied by Adtec™136 found popular use in metalworking industry due to its good hydrolytic stability.  The gem-dimethyl groups located at the central carbon of the ester are sterically hindered to render hydrolysis by water attack on the carbonyl groups more difficult, thus less favorable.  Therefore, under high pH over 9.5 where hydrolysis is a concern in metalworking formulations, Adtec™136 can be considered as a choice of lubricity additive among other ester additives.     

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(E) Polyethylene Glycol Esters

Peg Monoester diester

Polyethylene glycols (PEG) have a wide range of number/weight average molecular weights.  Most popular molecular weights in the range of 200, 400, and 600 are the favorable choices in metalworking and cosmetic industries.  Both head and tail of PEG have a hydroxyl group that can be esterified to yield mono- or di-ester or a mixture of both depending on the reaction conditions, the amount of each raw material used in the esterification, or catalyst selections.  Regardless of mono- or di-ester of PEG, they are all emulsifiers with different HLB values.  The HLB value of any specific PEG ester depends on the chain-length of ethylene oxide and is a balance between the lipophicity from ester portion and the hydrophilicity from PEG.  Higher HLB esters such as Adtec™233 (HLB= 13.6) or known as PEG 600 MO tend to be more soluble in water and can be the choice of emulsifier for metalworking formulations such as semi-synthetic MWF that contain more water than oil. Both Adtec™156 (PEG 400 DO) and 163 (PEG 400 DL) have HLB equal to 8.3 and 9.7, respectively, meaning that both are more oil-favored emulsifiers and could serve better as an emulsifier for soluble oil or oil-rich semi-synthetic MWF.  Both PEG esters also find use in cosmetic industry.  PEG esters are generally employed as a dual functional additive that provides emulsification and lubricity at the same time in performance when present in the lubricant formulations.

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(F) Adipate Esters

 Adipate esterAdipate esters are dibasic esters of adipic acid with long-chained alcohols, which are very different from the polyol esters previously mentioned in terms of chemistry involved.  Due to their high-temperature stability and low-temperature fluidity of these adipates such as Adtec™172 and 174, their preferred use in the lubricant industry is as a synthetic base stock.  There are cases where these adipates can be used as a gas detergent carrier fluid in the gasoline formulations or plasticizer in plastics.

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(G) Simple Esters

simple esterSimple esters are common in the ester industry for various uses.  Since we specialize in the oleochemicals, it is a good fit for us to manufacture simple esters based on unique mono-alcohol with stearic acid or tallow-based oleic acid.  For instance, Adtec™180 D is known as Fatty Acid Methyl Ester or FAME that is a very versatile product and can be used as a solvent for coatings or lubricity additive for metalworking fluids.  We also offer similar, but not the same ester such as Methyl Oleate, or Methyl Lardate and Methyl Tallowate from the NFO Department.  In choosing an oleo-ester, one has to be careful about the source or origin of oleic acid from animal or vegetable since it can dictate the quality and stability of the final ester.  The latter (vegetable-based esters) tends to have a higher Iodine Value (IV) and less linearity leading to less oxidative stability and poorer lubrication, respectively.  Simple ester of n-butanol and oleic acid known as n-butyl stearate (NBS) or Adtec™155 also has very unique properties.  It is not only a good lubricity additive, but also an excellent secondary rust-inhibitor since it tends to form a very thin film on the metal surface to prevent rust formation by isolating water and air from the metal surface.  Due to these properties, it finds spread uses in both iron and aluminum machining.  Isobutyl stearate (IBS) or as Adtec™160, a close analog of NBS, has similar performance. 

In general, the hydrolytical stability and low-temperature fluidity of simple esters normally represent typical characteristics from the alcohol used.  For a better hydrolytical stability and low-temperature characteristics, hindered alcohols are used such as isopropanol or 2-ethylhexanol.  We have isopropyl oleate (Adtec™132) and 2-ethylhexyl oleate (Adtec™150) in the AT product lineup.  When these two properties are less important and better lubricity is, a straight-chained alcohol is employed, such as n-butyl oleate (NBO or Adtec™158) or n-propyl oleate (NPO or Adtec™236).